Role of Ti3AlC2 MAX phase on characteristics of in-situ synthesized TiAl intermetallics. Part I: sintering and densification

  • Maryam Akhlaghi 1
  • Esmaeil Salahi 2
  • Seyed Ali Tayebifard 3
  • Gert Schmidt 4
  • 1 Central Reference Laboratory, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, 16844, Iran
  • 2 Ceramics Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj, Iran
  • 3 Semiconductors Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj, Iran
  • 4 Faculty of Mechanical, Process and Energy Engineering, TU Bergakademie, Freiberg, Germany


Five TiAl–Ti3AlC2 composite samples containing (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% Ti3AlC2 MAX phase) were prepared by spark plasma sintering technique at 900 °C for 7 min under 40 MPa. For this purpose, metallic titanium and aluminum powders (aiming at the in-situ formation of the TiAl matrix phase) were ball-milled with predetermined contents of Ti3AlC2 MAX phase, which already was synthesized using the same metallic powders as well as graphite flakes. Displacement-time-temperature variations during the heating and sintering steps, displacement rate versus temperature, displacement rate versus time, and densification behavior were studied. Two sharp changes were detected in the diagrams: the first one, ~16 min after the start of the heating process due to the melting of Al, and the second one, after ~35 min because of the sintering progression and the applied final pressure. The highest relative densities were measured for the samples doped with 20 and 25 wt% Ti3AlC2 additives. More Ti3AlC2 addition resulted in decreased relative density because of the agglomeration of MAX phase particles.


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Keywords: In-situ TiAl, Ti3AlC2 MAX phase, Spark plasma sintering, DTT graphs, Densification


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Role of Ti3AlC2 MAX phase on characteristics of in-situ synthesized TiAl intermetallics. Part I: sintering and densification
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Akhlaghi, M., Salahi, E., Tayebifard, S. A., & Schmidt, G. (2021). Role of Ti3AlC2 MAX phase on characteristics of in-situ synthesized TiAl intermetallics. Part I: sintering and densification . Synthesis and Sintering, 1(3), 169-175.