Synthesis and Sintering is dedicated to upholding ethical standards in publication to guarantee the production of high-quality scientific literature, foster public trust in scientific discoveries, and ensure proper recognition of intellectual contributions. We are committed to following the Best Practice Guidelines established by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and strictly adhere to its Code of Conduct.

Article Assessment

In Synthesis and Sintering, all submitted manuscripts undergo rigorous peer review to ensure they meet high academic standards. Following approval by the editor, submissions are evaluated by anonymous peer reviewers. Additionally, our Research Integrity team may seek external guidance for manuscripts with significant ethical, security, biosecurity, or societal implications. This may involve consulting experts and the academic editor to determine appropriate actions, such as enlisting reviewers with specialized expertise, involving additional editors in the assessment process, or deciding not to proceed with a submission.

Plagiarism, defined as the intentional reuse or replication of materials without proper citation or reference, is rigorously monitored by Synthesis and Sintering.

To uphold academic integrity, all submitted manuscripts undergo immediate scrutiny using iThenticate, a state-of-the-art plagiarism detection software, prior to undergoing the review process.

Synthesis and Sintering maintains a strict stance against plagiarism. If any instance of plagiarism is identified by editors, reviewers, or readers at any stage—before, during, or after publication—authors are required to provide comprehensive explanations.

If a published paper is found to contain plagiarized content, formal retraction procedures may be initiated to uphold the journal’s standards of authenticity and scholarship.

Manuscripts discovered to have been previously published elsewhere or currently under review elsewhere will be subject to sanctions for duplicate submission or publication. Authors utilizing their own previously published work or work currently under review as the foundation for a manuscript submission must acknowledge and reference the prior work appropriately. Authors must demonstrate how their submitted manuscript presents original contributions beyond those of the previously published work. Any verbatim reuse of the author’s language, except within the methods section, must be properly attributed or quoted in the text. Reuse of authors’ figures or extensive portions of text may necessitate permission from the copyright holder, for which authors are accountable. For further guidance, please refer to the COPE Guidelines.

Submitted manuscripts to Synthesis and Sintering discovered to contain citations primarily intended to artificially inflate citation counts for specific authors or articles within a particular journal will face sanctions for citation manipulation. Editors and reviewers are prohibited from pressuring authors to include references solely to boost citations for their own or an associate’s work, for the journal itself, or any associated journals. All citations must be genuine and relevant, with strict prohibitions against any form of manipulation, including non-relevant self-citations (both author self-citations and journal self-citations are strictly prohibited).

Manuscripts submitted to Synthesis and Sintering that are discovered to contain fabricated or falsified experimental results, including manipulated images, will face sanctions for data fabrication and falsification. Data fabrication involves the fabrication of research findings that were never actually obtained, while data falsification entails the manipulation of research data with the intent of presenting a false impression. This manipulation includes alterations to images such as micrographs, the removal of outliers or inconvenient results, as well as the alteration, addition, or omission of data points. Such actions are considered profoundly unethical and may even be subject to legal repercussions. In Synthesis and Sintering, we maintain a steadfast commitment to upholding the highest standards of integrity and ethics in scientific research, and we unequivocally condemn any form of fabrication or falsification practices.

In the context of image manipulation, authors are permitted to technically enhance images for readability. Proper technical manipulation encompasses adjustments to contrast, brightness, or color balance, provided they are applied uniformly across the entire digital image and not selectively to specific portions. Authors must disclose any technical manipulations in the cover letter submitted to the editor. Improper technical manipulation involves obscuring, enhancing, deleting, or introducing new elements into an image. 

In Synthesis and Sintering, all authors listed must substantially contribute to the scientific research presented in the manuscript and have endorsed all its assertions. We emphasize the inclusion of all individuals who have made significant scientific contributions, spanning from students and research scholars to project assistants and laboratory technicians.

Explicit delineation of each author’s contribution is paramount, and as such, we require a comprehensive description of author roles at the end of each submission, utilizing the standardized roles defined by the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT). This ensures transparency and recognition of the diverse contributions that enable the advancement of scientific knowledge.

Any allegations of copyright infringement should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief or the publisher at [email protected] with the subject line Copyright Infringement. The claim must be accompanied by documented evidence demonstrating that the same version was published, copyrighted, or patented by the aggrieved party prior to the publication date of the relevant article. Upon receiving the claim, the editorial board will assess its validity and notify the author involved, facilitating a transparent discussion between both parties.

The editorial board retains the exclusive authority to determine the legitimacy of such claims. If the claim is deemed justified after careful consideration, the relevant manuscript will be promptly removed from all archives and servers. Any subsequent print copies of the affected issue will exclude the article in question. In cases where minor adjustments, such as adding references, are needed, authors will be informed to make the necessary amendments following article correction policies of Synthesis and Sintering. The revised version will undergo peer review like any other submission and will be published in the same issue of the respective volume. Addressing copyright claims is a top priority, and a response will be provided within 10 working days if the claim is supported by documented evidence.

In the case of documented violations of any policies outlined within articles published in Synthesis and Sintering, we enforce the following sanctions:

  1. Instant rejection of the infringing manuscript.
  2. Instant rejection of any other manuscripts submitted to our journals by any of the authors involved in the infringing manuscript.
  3. Prohibition against all authors involved in the infringement from making any new submissions to our journals, whether individually or collaboratively with other authors from the infringing manuscript, as well as in collaboration with any other authors. This prohibition will be enforced for a minimum period of 36 months.
  4. Prohibition against all authors involved in the infringement from serving on the Editorial Team of our journals.

Additionally, we reserve the right to undertake further actions as deemed necessary to uphold the integrity and credibility of our publications and to safeguard the scholarly community from unethical practices.

We uphold these measures to ensure adherence to ethical standards and maintain the trust and integrity of the journal and the wider scientific community.