Optimum temperature, time and atmosphere of precursor pyrolysis for synthesis of B4C ceramics

  • Seyed Faridaddin Feiz 1
  • Leila Nikzad 2
  • Hudsa Majidian 1
  • Esmaeil Salahi 1
  • 1 Ceramics Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj, Iran
  • 2 Materials and energy research center


In this paper, the variables of the pyrolysis operation such as temperature, time, and atmosphere were studied and optimized. At first, the effect of increasing pyrolysis time at lower temperatures was investigated to understand the mutual influence of pyrolysis time and temperature in enhancing the efficiency of B4C synthesis. Then, three pyrolysis atmospheres were selected to find the optimal conditions: burial method in a box furnace (air), pyrolysis in a tubular furnace (argon), and pyrolysis in a box furnace (air). The pyrolyzed powders were finally located inside the tubular furnace at 1500 °C for 4 h under an argon atmosphere to synthesize B4C ceramics. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was employed to determine the optimal processing conditions. The temperature of 600 °C and the holding time of 2 h were selected as the optimal pyrolysis conditions. Meanwhile, the burial method was chosen as the best atmosphere despite having a higher percentage of impurity because of the much lower cost compared to the argon atmosphere.


Download data is not yet available.
Keywords: Ceramics, B4C synthesis, Process optimization, Pyrolysis, Atmosphere


[1] F. Jahn, S. Weißmantel, Properties of boron carbide thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition, Surf. Coat. Technol. 422 (2021) 127480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2021.127480.
[2] A. Sivkov, I. Rakhmatullin, I. Shanenkov, Y. Shanenkova, Boron carbide B4C ceramics with enhanced physico-mechanical properties sintered from multimodal powder of plasma dynamic synthesis, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 78 (2019) 85–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2018.09.003.
[3] A. Haashir, T. Debnath, P.K. Patowari, A comparative assessment of micro drilling in boron carbide using ultrasonic machining, Mater. Manuf. Process. 35 (2020) 86–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2019.1697447.
[4] Y. Gao, W. Rafaniello, M.F. Toksoy, T. Munhollon, R. Haber, Improvement of crystallization and particle size distribution of boric acid in the processing of a boron carbide precursor, RSC Adv. 5 (2015) 19067–19073. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA16279J.
[5] T.R. Pilladi, K. Ananthansivan, S. Anthonysamy, Synthesis of boron carbide from boric oxide-sucrose gel precursor, Powder Technol. 246 (2013) 247–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2013.04.055.
[6] S. Avcıoğlu, F. Kaya, C. Kaya, Morphological evolution of boron carbide particles: Sol-gel synthesis of nano/micro B4C fibers, Ceram. Int. 47 (2021) 26651–26667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2021.06.073.
[7] V. Özkan Bilici, Ultrasonic properties of Ni–Fe–B4C cermets produced by tube furnace sintering, Synth. Sinter. 2 (2022) 62–66. https://doi.org/10.53063/synsint.2022.2287.
[8] C.-H. Jung, M.-J. Lee, C.-J. Kim, Preparation of carbon-free B4C powder from B2O3 oxide by carbothermal reduction process, Mater. Lett. 58 (2004) 609–614. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00579-2.
[9] X. Li, M. Lei, S. Gao, D. Nie, K. Liu, et al., Thermodynamic investigation and reaction mechanism of B4C synthesis based on carbothermal reduction, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 17 (2020) 1079–1087. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijac.13290.
[10] A.K. Suri, C. Subramanian, J.K. Sonber, T.S.R.C. Murthy, Synthesis and consolidation of boron carbide: a review, Int. Mater. Rev. 55 (2010) 4–40. https://doi.org/10.1179/095066009X12506721665211.
[11] R.A. Andrievski, Micro- and nanosized boron carbide: synthesis, structure and properties, Russ. Chem. Rev. 81 (2012) 549–559. https://doi.org/10.1070/RC2012v081n06ABEH004287.
[12] A. Sabahi Namini, Z. Ahmadi, A. Babapoor, M. Shokouhimehr, M. Shahedi Asl, Microstructure and thermomechanical characteristics of spark plasma sintered TiC ceramics doped with nano-sized WC, Ceram. Int. 45 (2019) 2153–2160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.10.125.
[13] M.M. Al-Asadi, H.A. Al-Tameemi, A review of tribological properties and deposition methods for selected hard protective coatings, Tribol. Int. 176 (2022) 107919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2022.107919.
[14] S.F. Feiz, L. Nikzad, H. Majidian, E. Salahi, Performance of glucose, sucrose and cellulose as carbonaceous precursors for the synthesis of B4C powders, Synth. Sinter. 2 (2022) 26–30. https://doi.org/10.53063/synsint.2022.21108.
[15] S. Avcioglu, F. Kaya, C. Kaya, Effect of elemental nano boron on the transformation and morphology of boron carbide (B4C) powders synthesized from polymeric precursors, Ceram. Int. 46 (2020) 17938–17950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.04.104.
[16] S. Mondal, A.K. Banthia, Low-temperature synthetic route for boron carbide, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 25 (2005) 287–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2004.08.011.
[17] I. Yanase, R. Ogawara, H. Kobayashi, Synthesis of boron carbide powder from polyvinyl borate precursor, Mater. Lett. 63 (2009) 91–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2008.09.012.
[18] M. Maqbool, Rafi-Ud-Din, G.H. Zahid, E. Ahmad, Z. Asghar, et al., Effect of saccharides as carbon source on the synthesis and morphology of B4C fine particles from carbothermal synthesis precursors, Mater. Express. 5 (2015) 390–400. https://doi.org/10.1166/mex.2015.1257.
[19] Rafi-ud-din, G.H. Zahid, E. Ahmad, M. Maqbool, T. Subhani, et al., Effect of cellulose-derived structural homogeneity of precursor on the synthesis and morphology of boron carbide, J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. Mater. 25 (2015) 995–999. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10904-015-0181-x.
[20] P. Foroughi, Z. Cheng, Understanding the morphological variation in the formation of B4C via carbothermal reduction reaction, Ceram. Int. 42 (2016) 15189–15198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.06.126.
[21] Rafi-ud-din, G.H. Zahid, Z. Asghar, M. Maqbool, E. Ahmad, et al., Ethylene glycol assisted low-temperature synthesis of boron carbide powder from borate citrate precursors, J. Asian Ceram. Soc. 2 (2014) 268–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jascer.2014.05.011.
[22] S. Wang, Y. Li, X. Xing, X. Jing, Low-temperature synthesis of high-purity boron carbide via an aromatic polymer precursor, J. Mater. Res. 33 (2018) 1659–1670. https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2018.97.
[23] O. Karaahmet, Use of partially hydrolyzed PVA for boron carbide synthesis from polymeric precursor, Ceram. - Silik. 64 (2020) 434–446. https://doi.org/10.13168/cs.2020.0031.
[24] O. Karaahmet, B. Cicek, Effect of mechanically modification process on boron carbide synthesis from polymeric precursor method, Ceram. Int. 48 (2022) 11940–11952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2022.01.043.
[25] S.F. Feiz, L. Nikzad, H. Majidian, E. Salahi, Effects of glucose pretreatment and boric acid content on the synthesizability of B4C ceramics, Synth. Sinter. 2 (2022) 78–83. https://doi.org/10.53063/synsint.2022.22115.
[26] P. Murray, Low temperature synthesis of boron carbide using a polymer precursor powder route, University of Birmingham. (2013).
[27] F. Thévenot, Boron carbide—A comprehensive review, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 6 (1990) 205–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/0955-2219(90)90048-K.
[28] A.M. Hadian, J.A. Bigdeloo, The effect of time, temperature and composition on boron carbide synthesis by Sol-gel method, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 17 (2008) 44–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-007-9125-0.
[29] A. Sudoh, H. Konno, H. Habazaki, H. Kiyono, Synthesis of boron carbide microcrystals from saccharides and boric acid, TANSO. 2007 (2007) 8–12. https://doi.org/10.7209/tanso.2007.8.

Cited By

Crossref Google Scholar
Optimum temperature, time and atmosphere of precursor pyrolysis for synthesis of B4C ceramics
How to Cite
Feiz, S. F., Nikzad, L., Majidian, H., & Salahi, E. (2022). Optimum temperature, time and atmosphere of precursor pyrolysis for synthesis of B4C ceramics. Synthesis and Sintering, 2(3), 146-150. https://doi.org/10.53063/synsint.2022.23119