Evolution of red ceramic pigments: from hazardous compounds to environmentally friendly alternatives

  • Rayehe Tavakolipour 1
  • Yueming Li 2
  • Maryam Hosseini Zori 3
  • Maria Ines Basso Bernardi 4
  • Kun Li 5
  • Aušra Čiuladienė 6
  • Eva Miguel 7
  • 1 Department of Materials Engineering, Naghshejahan Institute of Higher Education, Baharestan, Isfahan, Iran
  • 2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic University; Jingdezhen 333403, China
  • 3 Department of Inorganic Pigments and Glazes, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO Box: 1668814811, Tehran, Iran
  • 4 Sao Carlos Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo - USP, Sao Carlos - SP, Brazil
  • 5 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, Shaanxi, Postal code: 723001, Shaanxi, China
  • 6 Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, 24 Naugarduko Street, 03225 Vilnius, Lithuania
  • 7 Ceramic Technology Department, Escola Superior de Ceràmica de L’Alcora (ESCAL-ISEACV), 12110 L’Alcora, Spain


Synthesis of red ceramic pigments is a challenging task in the ceramic industry. Most of the classic reds are based on severely toxic materials including lead, arsenic, mercury, selenium, and cadmium, mostly forbidden in many countries. On another hand, the red color is super sensitive to the synthesis parameters, heat-treatment conditions (atmosphere and temperature), particle size, etc. Therefore, achieving a bright true red shade and its stability at high temperatures is crucial. There has been a massive attempt to find a sustainable high-temperature resistant alternative for these hazardous compounds. Iron oxide is one of the first red pigments in history, but it is not capable of producing a bright red shade and its color is mostly red-brown. Ce2S3 is another red pigment with a beautiful red color. But it cannot stand the temperature above 350˚C in an oxidizing atmosphere. Doping lanthanides in the perovskites or entrapping the toxic beautiful chromophores in the core-shell structures are among the strategies to achieve safe bright red pigments. This review outlines the recent progress of hazardous classic reds to environmentally friendly ceramic red pigments. Various compounds and dopants, applied to develop sustainable reds, from simple iron-oxides to composites, solid solutions, core-shell structures, or even purified wastes have been covered in this review.


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Keywords: Red ceramic pigments, Cerium-based pigments, Core-shell, Environmental-friendly, Lanthanides, Hematite
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How to Cite
Tavakolipour, R., Li, Y., Hosseini Zori, M., Basso Bernardi, M. I., Li, K., Čiuladienė, A., & Miguel, E. (2024). Evolution of red ceramic pigments: from hazardous compounds to environmentally friendly alternatives. Synthesis and Sintering, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.53063/synsint.2024.42206

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